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Agenda

December 2017
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Study on The Characteristic of Sunda Parahiyangan Landscape for A Model of Sustainable Landscape Management: An Introduction of Kabuyutan System

ABSTRACT

Study on The Characteristic of Sunda Parahiyangan Landscape for A Model of Sustainable Landscape Management: An Introduction of Kabuyutan System *)

 

Mohammad Zaini DAHLAN1, NURHAYATI H. S. Arifin2, Wahju Qamara MUGNISJAH3, Katsue FUKAMACHI4, and Shozo SHIBATA5

 

1PhD student at Laboratory of Landscape Ecology and Planning, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Japan

2,3Lecturer at Department of Landscape Architecture, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

4Associate Professor at Laboratory of Landscape Ecology and Planning, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Japan

5Professor at Laboratory of Landscape Ecology and Planning, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Japan

Sunda Parahiyangan landscape is a unified system of ecology and socio-economic and spiritual-culture that reflected in the agro-ecosystem. Sustainability of agro-ecosystem is needed to support continuity of human life and their environment, especially for rural communities that relied strongly on agricultural resources. Sundanese society as a rural and mountain society have their own traditional ecological knowledges (TEK). TEK of Sundanese society can be a filter of modernization that negatively affects socio-cultural life of the society, as well as damages their nature and environment. Regarding to the role of TEK, it is necessary to do an explorative and descriptive-qualitative study of the various forms of TEK in the context of sustainable agriculture. The qualitative method was used for collecting relevant data to the characteristic of Sunda Parahiyangan landscape. Data collected by using Rapid Participatory Rural Appraisal (rPRA) through semi-structured interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), and field survey. Data analysis used Landscape Characteristic Assessment (LCA) to analyze character of Sunda Parahiyangan landscape, Knowledge-Based System Methodology to analyze TEK, National Research Council (NRC) and Community Sustainability Assessment (CSA) to analyze sustainable agricultural landscape. The sustainability of agricultural landscape purposed to achieve USDA’s sustainable agricultural landscape criteria. The study results indicate that the Sunda Parahiyangan agro-ecosystem has unique characteristics as a result of the adaptation of society to nature and environment through a learning process from generation to generation in a relatively long time period. The character at rural landscape that has been created is a mountainous agricultural landscape type with abundant water resource as a main element. Because of that, Sundanese society called as people of mountain (urang gunung) and people of water (urang cai). In general, this character is reflected in some Sundanese’s agroecosystems such as kebun-talun (forest garden), sawah (paddy field), and pekarangan (home garden) that located surrounding settlement area. Furthermore, kabuyutan system is one of the TEKs in managing landscape that related to understanding of human and nature interaction and utilization of environment (Figure 1). Kabuyutan focus on revitalizing the role of water flow from the mountain (gunung), through the river (sunge), to the sea (sagara). On the other hand, kabuyutan as a traditional landscape management system is similar to watershed management system at this time. Kabuyutan system in Sundanese landscape (Pangauban) is implemented by calculating and deciding protected/prohibition forest (leuweung larangan), conservation forest (leuweung tutupan), and production forest (leuweung baladahan). This system can be promoted as an alternative solution in landscape management both rural and urban area with focusing on the management of water resources as a main source of life.

 

Keywords: agroecosystem, mountainous agricultural landscape, mountain and water society, traditional ecological knowledge/TEK, kabuyutan, rural landscape management

 

 

Screen Shot 2015-03-08 at 07.05.49

Fig. 1 Kabuyutan System in Sundanese Landscape

(Study Case in Pangauban Cidarma, Ciamis, West Java)

*) Presented by Mohammad Zaini Dahlan on a discussion (Dialog Profesi) held by IALI Jawa Barat (Indonesian Society of Landscape Architect, West Java Region) on March 7th 2015 in Bandung, West Java

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