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December 2017
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Sukaratu Village, Cibolang Village and Cisanti Lake in Landscape Prosperity of Wayang-Windu Mountains West Java

SUKARATU VILLAGE, CIBOLANG VILLAGE AND CISANTI LAKE IN LANDSCAPE PROSPERITY OF WAYANG-WINDU MOUNTAINS WEST JAVA

(Presented in IFLA APR Congress, Lombok, 7 – 9 September 2015) 

Aprillia, Kusriantari Fenny1, Monthazeri, Rido2

 

¹ Master Student, Landscape Architecture Department, Bandung Institute of Technology

² Master Student, Landscape Architecture Department, Bandung Institute of Technology

 

Email: fenny.aprillia.90@gmail.com

Abstract

 

South district of Bandung is a highland with many mountains, two of them there are Wayang Mountain and Windu Mountain. Cisanti Lake which located at the east side of Wayang Windu Mountains is a source of Citarum River. The river is used to fulfill water need of society in Bandung and surrounding areas. At the west side of Wayang Windu Mountains there are Sukaratu and Cibolang Village which is located at valley of the mountains with a great water surface and soil resources. Besides that there is a geothermal potential that is used by Star Energy Company as a power plant. Regardless of its potential and Cisanti Lake as an upstream of Citarum River must be preserved, there are several problems of environment which can be harmful for human and flora fauna habitats around Wayang Windu Mountains.

The disaster happens caused of human activity such as landslide, flood and sedimentation. All of them caused by land use changing from forest, riparian or tea gardens into agricultural land. Land use changing became agricultural land is carried out by residents to fulfil daily needs except their main profession as tea garden labourers. Besides that, water pollution which is caused by dirt of cows, agriculture and fishery activities bring the decreasing of water quality in the river. Hence, it becomes conflict between human needs and sustainable environment then finally all of those bring disaster which is caused by human itself.

The culture of farming, aquaculture and cattle breeding have become society’s livelihoods, but farming, aquaculture and cattle breeding which are not sustain causing environmental damage and affect the habitats of native flora fauna. Unsustainable agriculture was found in around of Cisanti Lake area causing landslide and flood can be resolved by the forest planting method which combines forest with agriculture in one site called agroforestry. People can plant vegetable without eliminates the functions of the forest itself. Unsustainable aquaculture by fish ponds was found in Sukaratu and Cibolang Village causing decline of river water quality. Residual of fish feed and chemical of medicine can pollute water of the river. Decreasing of river water quality can be resolved by natural water treatment using gravel, soil and aquatic vegetation which is placed in every pond. Unsustainable cattle breeding were found in Cibolang and Cibereum Village (near Cisanti Lake) causing water polluted by dirt of cows till decreasing quality of river water towards downstream. Building wetland near the cattle breeding is the solution to reduce water pollution. Wetland design uses multi layer system and horizontal flow model.

 

Keywords: Wayang-Windu Mountains, sustainable fishery, sustainable agriculture, sustainable cattle breeding, landscape prosperity

 

 

  1. Introduction

Wayang Windu Mountains located in border of Pangalengan subdistrict and Kertasari subdistrict, district of Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia. By this mountains appears seven springs which located in Cisanti lake area which is source of Citarum river basin. This river holds important role for social life of West Java Province and DKI Jakarta people. The utilization of Citarum river serves to meet the daily needs, irigation system and power plants. [10]

Altitude of Wayang Windu Mountains landscape at 1550 meters above sea level (mdpl) up to the highest one approximately 2100 mdpl that is consists of forest, lake, vegetable plantation, housing, tea plantation, warm water tourism, aquaculture, cattle breeding and geothermal power station company. If we seen the whole area by satellite imagery, it has been formed more than last ten years, and keeps having change of landuse. The previous area is forest but it is functioned for plantation and housing now, This is caused by increasing the number of population.

The mountains landscape which has changed is causing nature imbalance. Occuring natural disaster such as water pollution, flood and landslide is caused of landuse changing which happens continuously due to human activities. Natural disaster is followed by decreasing of environmental quality such as decreasing water and soil quality which keeps happening unconsciously. Reducing the animal population and native vegetation of mountain landscape is also as a sign of natural balance disruption.

Wayang Windu mountains landscape has provided many benefits for human being, but it is not balanced with its environment sustainability. Occuring conflict between fulfillment of human needs and environment sustainability is problem that must be resolved. The ultimate goal is Wayang Windu Mountains society will live with prosperity of Wayang Windu Mountains landscape.

 

  1. Method

Method which is used is descriptive qualitative, that is by gives description about phenomenon occurs in landscape of Wayang Windu Mountains. The observation is by site, satellite imagery, and map observation. After that, describing observation which has done against mountains landscape and the relation with its human up to creating problems which will be resolved. Resolving problems are conducted by literature study and previous study, with site adaption and design modification.

 

  1. Wayang Windu Mountains Landscape

The majority of society livelihoods activities around Wayang Windu Mountains is as tea garden laborers, vegetable farmer, cattleman and aquaculturer. Hence the order of the landscape also follows the society activities.

Vegetable plantation which located in east side of Wayang Windu Mountains is along the Citarum River stream in first segment, exactly not far from Cisanti Lake in Pejanten village and Cibereum Village. Vegetable plantation which managed by society in slope of the mountains without use terracing technique is causing landslide disaster. Furthermore unsustainable agriculture technique is causing reduction of soil fertility and quality. Landslide disaster which always happens in raining season is caused by the area that should be as catchment water area but change into vegetable plantation area. The loss of a lot of trees is causing soil can not be able to hold water which flows from mountains slope in raining season. While in the summer, society agriculture is drought due to the soil can not be able to save water in raining season. It has negative impact to economic sector.

 Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 21.58.03

 

The other problem, there is no tree along Citarum River riparian which also change into vegetable plantation creates bad impact for water river quality. Water flows continuously crushes soil which is not hold by roots of the trees so that causing muddy running water and sedimentation in downstream. Without river riparian vegetation, water quality is polluted by agriculture pesticide or bacteria from waste water cattle breeding which throw into water stream directly can not be filtered naturaly by vegetation roots, so that the quality of water flows declining followed by reduction of water habitat quality.

 Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 21.58.58

 

Civil cattle breeding is seen in Pangalengan subdistrict, because this area is milk producer since the dutch colonial. The majority of cattleman is breeding cows and build the farm near by water river stream, it is meant the manure can be easy to clean and throw to river sream directly without through waste water treatment. This pollution also happens in east side of Wayang-Windu mountain in Cibereum village. The manure that throws into river stream directly can pollute river water which contains E.Coli bacteria. It has adverse impact to society health who use river water for daily needs.

 Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 21.59.50

 

Fishery of society is seen in Cibolang and Sukaratu Village. Both of those villages have abundant water resources, hot water resources and surface water resources flows in the river. At Cibolang Village hot water resources is used for tourism sector which is managed by the ministry of forestry. While in Sukaratu Village hot water resources also has been used for tourism sector by non govermental organization. The abundant water resources is not only used for tourism sector but also for society aquaculture using fish ponds. Fish ponds are build by society following creek flows with the aim of ponds get water supply from creek flows directly, beside that waste water from fishery activity also throws into river stream directly too and it flows toward the lower villages. There is no fishery waste water treatment causing reduction of river water quality. Polluting water of river is caused by leftover fodder and chemical drugs which is used for fish growth. Beside that there is not riparian vegetation causing the polluted river water can not be filtered well.

 Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 22.01.29

 

  1. Sustainable Agriculture

The east side of Wayang Windu mountains slope is dominated by vegetable plantation. The vegetable plantation field should be functioned as water catchment area and water storage that is used in dry season.

Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 22.02.14

 

The benefits derived from land use changes is it can increase society and regional income by vegetable plantation crop (economic sector). While the problem that arises is vulnerable to landslide (natural disaster aspect), reduction of soil quality and fertility as well as reduction of ground water intensity (environmental aspect), reduction of biodiversity (ecology sector). Table summary of vegetable plantation condition in east side of Wayang Windu Mountains is as follows :

 Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 22.05.01

“Agroforestry, as currently defined by the World Agroforestry Centre, is: A dynamic, ecologically based, natural resources management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environmental benefits for land users at all levels. (ICRAF, 2000)” [6]. There are several types of agroforestry but in plantation land of Wayang Windu Mountains slope is more suitable to be applied agrisilviculture type that uses complex agroforestry and tumpangsari practice. Agrisilviculture according to McCracken, et al, is “a land-use system where both agricultural crops and forest products are produced, simultaneously or sequentially” while complex agroforestry is “agroforest that arise when farmers intercrop a food crop with one or two tall, upper-canopy timber or fruit tree species” [6]. Then Tumpangsari or which is famous called with Taungya according to Nail “consists of growing annual agricultural crops along with the forestry species during the early years of establishment of the forestry plantation” [7]. Agroforestry systems in Indonesia currently harbour 50 per cent of the plants, 60 per cent of the birds and 100 per cent of the large animals that would normally be found in a natural forest [6].

 Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 22.06.17

 

Complex agroforestry practice enables for farmers to plant vegetation likes trees which can be taken its fruits, but not allow to plant vegetation with fibre roots likes vegetables. According to McCracken, et al, “the end result is one that closely resembles natural forests and often records high levels of biodiversity” [6]. By using complex agroforestry practice, farmers is invited to add crops commodities beside vegetable i.e fruits. While in tumpangsari practice, farmers can plant vegetable as usual between trees which is planted for afforestation. Recomendation of vegetation combination which can be applied at agroforestry in Wayang Windu Mountains slope with complex agroforestry and tumpangsari practices is as follows:

 Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 22.07.12

Combination which is proposed for complex agroforestry is using endemic vegetation, fruit trees and wooden trees, while for tumpangsari to use existing vegetable plant, endemic vegetation and leguminous vegetation.

 

  1. Sustainable Cattle Breeding

Cow cattles are seen at Pangalengan Subdistrict, one of them is in Cibolang Village west side of Wayang Windu Mountains and Cibereum Village east side of Wayang Windu Mountains. Both of them are built near river basin, so the manure can be cleaned and thrown into the river directly. Several cattle breedings in Pangalengan have utilized cow’s manure for fertilizer of tea plantation and processed to be biogas, but not all of manure can be stored to be processed becomes fertilizer and biogas. The Population of cow in Pangalengan reach 14.999 cows at the end of 2012 [8] becomes a reason not accomodated of all cow’s manure to process into fertilizer and biogas.

Necessary processing cow’s manure technique beside reuse to be fertilizer and biogas. The other technique gives treatment to waste water before throws into river flows. This technique can use artificial wetland. By designing wetland according to the needs can reduce river water pollution rate. Cow’s manure contents nutrient i.e Nitrogen, Phosfat, Potasium, Magnesium, Carbon and Calsium [4]. If several substances react will create acid reaction and lowering the pH. This treatment can use multi layer artificial wetland model. According to Lu Shibao et al, “the artificial wetland is comprised of such groundmasses as breakstone and gravel etc as well as aquatic plant attached to it. The wastewater flows in or beneath surface layer of groundmass at the wetland, and decomposes nutritive materials in water through such a serial processes as attachment to groundmass, absorption by plant and microbial conversion etc, which belongs to distinctive soil-plant-microbe system that is differentiated from the wetland” [1]. Multi layer wetland uses several natural materials as the layer of waste filter. The process starts from sedimentation, filtering by gravel, filtering by soil and filtering by aquatic vegetation. This filter model can eliminate organic substance, nitrogen and phosporus [1].

Waste water treatment starts from sedimentation of solid material or organic material which is probably mixed with cow’s manure. The solid material is cow’s manure and the organic material is leftover fodder. This sedimentation process will separate solid and liquid material, so the liquid material will through next treatment while solid material will be decomposed by bacteria. Next stage, liquid material will be flowed passing gravel, soil and aquatic vegetation.

Some of aquatic vegetation which can increase water quality are Mendong (Iris sibirica), Teratai (Nymphaea firecrest), Kiambang (Spirodella polyrrhiza) dan Hidrilla (Hydrilla verticillata). Water quality which is increased includes physical quality, chemical and microbiology [2].

Artificial wetland is designed adjust by site condition in Cibolang and Cibereum Village. The contouring land is utilized for water treatment design using terraces principle and utilizing gravity. The model of multi layer artificial wetland which having adjustment to be applied in Cibolang and Cibereum Village is as follows :

 Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 22.09.19

 

  1. Sustainable Fishery

Fishery which uses fish ponds is seen in Cibolang and Sukaratu Village, due to both of those village have abundant water resources. The problem is fish leftover fodder and chemical drugs flowed into the river stream directly that causing water pollution. The fish ponds utilize site condition which has countour, so it is designed like terrace and flows water from one pond to others in lower ponds. There is no filtering system in every pond causing the difference of water pond colour from one to another. Pond which is located in higest contour and near with source has clear colour compared with the one in lowest contour and far from the source. Leftover fodder and chemical drugs assembled in pond which is located in lowest contour and flows into river stream without treatment processed. Sulphur content from hot springs also mixed into fish pond water.

Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 22.10.54

The solution offered is makes filter system in every fish pond. The filter is sedimentation tub for leftover fodder and filter tub for chemical drugs using gravel and aquatic vegetation. It is meant for water which flows into the lower pond can be filtered and has good quality for fish growth.

Sedimentation tub is designed easily to be cleaned, the sediment can be removed easily and regularly. Chemical filter tub uses vertical flow system for less place. Few things that have to be noticed to eliminate chemical content inside the water are presence of vegetation and flow type [3]. Several chemical substances can be absorbed by free water surface method but few others have to pass subsurface flow filter method [3]. Hence needed combination from two types of those flows. The presence of vegetation also help filtering chemical substance inside the water. Several vegetations which can absorb chemical substance are eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes) and lepironia (Lepironia articulata) (use for neutralise acid mine waste) [5]. Beside that typha angustifolia can be used to absorb chemical substance especially metal [3]. After through filtering process by aquatic vegetation, water can be flowed into another fish pond. The following filter model which can be placed in every fish pond:

 Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 22.11.47

Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 22.11.59

 

  1. Conclusion

Sustainable agriculture in east side of Wayang Windu Mountains is applied by agroforestry system, by using complex agroforestry and tumpangsari. The application of agroforstry has purpose to solve conflict between fulfillment of human needs and environment. Sustainable cattle breeding in Cibereum and Cibolang Village is applied by waste water treatment method before throws in to the river basin. Waste water treatment of cow’s manure uses wetland with multi-layer model and horizontal flows type as well as having with site condition which has countur. Sustainable fishery in Sukaratu and Cibolang Village is applied by making natural filter model in every fish pond with vertical flow type for less place and combination of free water surface and subsurface flow method.

 

References

 

Journals

[1] Lu, Shibao., Pei, Liang., Bai, Xiao. 2015. Study on method of domestic wastewater treatment through new-type multi-layer artificial wetland. international journal of hydrogen energy xxx (2015) 1-8.

[2] Yusuf, Guntur. 2008. Household Waste Bioremediation by Aquatic Vegetation Simulation System. Jurnal Bumi Lestari, Vol. 8 No. 2, August 2008 p 136-144. (in Indonesian).

[3] A, Pedescoll., R, Sidrach-Cardona., M, Hijosa-Valsero., E, Bécares. Design parameters affecting metals removal in horizontal constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment. Ecological Engineering 80 (2015) 92–99.

 

Proceedings

[4] Suparman, Maman., Supiati. Analysis of Minerals in the Process of Decomposition of Cow Feces Using Probiotics. Proceeding national technical meeting power agricultural functional 2004. The central research and the development of animal husbandry. 2004. p 43-50. (in Indonesian).

[5] Henny, Cynthia., Ajie, Guruh Satria., Susanti, Evi. 2010. Mining Acid Water Treatment Using ‘Passive Treatment’ System. Proceeding National Seminar of Limnology V 2010. p 331 – 344. (in Indonesian).

 

Books

[6] McCracken, J. R., Maginnis, S., Sarre, A. 2007. The Forest Landscape Restoration Handbook. Earthscan, United Kingdom, p. 119, 121, 122, 125.

[7] Nair, P. K. R. 1993. An Introduction to Agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Netherlands, p. 75.

 

Electronic Publications

[8] Bb1. 2014. The District Goverment Developed Centre of Dairy Cattle and Beef Cattle. Balebandung.com. http://www.balebandung.com/2014-12-27/pemkab-kembangkan-sentra-sapi-perah-dan-potong. (in Indonesian)

 

Others

[9] Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu) Ltd, Pertamina Geothermal Energy. 2012. Sustainable report 2012: Achievement for Sustainability. p. 35 (in Indonesian).

[10] Cita Citarum. Integrated Citarum Water Resources Management Investment Program. p. x, 2, 9 (in Indonesian).

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